Tratamiento endoscópico de las lesiones premalignas y el cáncer in situ de colon y recto

Yesael Descalzo García, Raúl Brizuela Quintanilla, Dayron Páez Suarez, Vivianne Anido Escobar, Maricela Morera Pérez

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Resumen

Introducción: El tratamiento endoscópico se considera actualmente de elección para el cáncer digestivo precoz sin metástasis en los ganglios linfáticos.
Objetivo: Describir la utilidad de la resección mucosa endoscópica y la disección submucosa endoscópica en pacientes con lesiones pre-malignas y cáncer in situ de colon y recto.
Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, en una serie de casos del Centro Nacional de Cirugía de Mínimo Acceso, desde enero del 2015 a julio del 2016.
Resultados: La serie la conformaron 20 pacientes con una edad media de 64,2 años. Existió predominio del femenino (70 %), se extirparon 28 lesiones, mayoritariamente se utilizó la resección mucosa endoscópica. La tasa de resección en bloque alcanzada fue de 75 %. La tasa de resecciones radicales con márgenes libres de lesiones alcanzada fue de 71,4 %. Se utilizó la clasificación histológica de Viena para neoplasias intraepiteliales. No hubo complicaciones relacionadas con las técnicas utilizadas.
Conclusiones: Las técnicas endoscópicas de resección mucosa y disección submucosa, resultaron útiles en el tratamiento de pacientes con lesiones pre-malignas y cáncer in situ de colon y recto. 

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