Caracterización clínica epidemiológica de pacientes con EPOC y cáncer de pulmón

Ernesto Ramírez Ramírez, Dennis Sánchez Ramos, Jorge Alberto Castañeda Fernández, Edgar Benítez Sánchez, Armando Ernesto Pérez Cala

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Resumen

Introducción: el cáncer de pulmón es la neoplasia más frecuente y la primera causa de muerte por cáncer actualmente.
Objetivo: caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente a pacientes fumadores con EPOC y cáncer de pulmón no microcítico.
Método: estudio observacional, retrospectivo, transversal a pacientes egresados con diagnóstico de cáncer de pulmón y portadores de EPOC, durante el periodo comprendido entre enero de 2009 y enero de 2015. De 112 individuos fueron seleccionados 55 pacientes. Fueron analizadas variables sociodemográficas, intensidad del tabaquismo y del efecto acumulativo del tabaco. Además de las medidas de resumen se empleó análisis de varianzas para establecer la correlación lineal entre tabaquismo, EPOC y cáncer de pulmón.
Resultados: la mayoría de los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón y EPOC pertenecían al sexo femenino (85,7 %) y el 75 % de los que portaban ambas afecciones se encontraba en grupos de edades menores de los 60 años. La edad de iniciación temprana del hábito, tiempo fumando, y número de paquetes de cigarrillos consumidos al año, fueron las variables que mostraron una asociación más significativa con ambas entidades (p= 0,01; 0,00; y 0,02 respectivamente).
Conclusiones: la coexistencia de EPOC y cáncer de pulmón resultó más frecuente en el sexo femenino y en edades inferiores a los 60 años. Hubo mayor representación en pacientes con mayor intensidad del tabaquismo. Existió correlación entre el efecto acumulativo del tabaquismo y las probabilidades de desarrollar EPOC y cáncer en fumadores, en especial con los de mayor tiempo de consumo y los que fuman mayor número de paquetes al año.

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